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單片機電子琴
Electronic organ

時間:2014-4-13 20:00:52 來源:互聯網 作者:不詳 編輯: 【關閉


 
1.  實驗任務
(1.       由4X4組成16個按鈕矩陣,設計成16個音。
(2.       可隨意彈奏想要表達的音樂。
2.電路原理圖
 
單片機電子琴Electronic organ
 
 
3.系統板硬件連線
(1.       把“單片機系統”區域中的P1.0端口用導線連接到“音頻放大模塊”區域中的SPK IN端口上;
(2.       把“單片機系統“區域中的P3.0-P3.7端口用8芯排線連接到“4X4行列式鍵盤”區域中的C1-C4 R1-R4端口上;
4.  相關程序內容
(1.       4X4行列式鍵盤識別;
(2.       音樂產生的方法;
一首音樂是許多不同的音階組成的,而每個音階對應著不同的頻率,這樣我們就可以利用不同的頻率的組合,即可構成我們所想要的音樂了,當然對于單片機來產生不同的頻率非常方便,我們可以利用單片機的定時/計數器T0來產生這樣方波頻率信號,因此,我們只要把一首歌曲的音階對應頻率關系弄正確即可,F在以單片機12MHZ晶振為例,例出高中低音符與單片機計數T0相關的計數值如下表所示
音符
頻率(HZ)
簡譜碼(T值)
 
音符
頻率(HZ)
簡譜碼(T值)
低1 DO
262
63628
# 4 FA#
740
64860
#1 DO#
277
63731
中5 SO
784
64898
低2 RE
294
63835
# 5 SO#
831
64934
#2 RE#
311
63928
中6 LA
880
64968
低3 M
330
64021
# 6
932
64994
低4 FA
349
64103
中7 SI
988
65030
# 4 FA#
370
64185
高1 DO
1046
65058
低5 SO
392
64260
# 1 DO#
1109
65085
# 5 SO#
415
64331
高2 RE
1175
65110
低6 LA
440
64400
 
# 2 RE#
1245
65134
# 6
466
64463
高3 M
1318
65157
低7 SI
494
64524
高4 FA
1397
65178
中1 DO
523
64580
# 4 FA#
1480
65198
# 1 DO#
554
64633
高5 SO
1568
65217
中2 RE
587
64684
# 5 SO#
1661
65235
# 2 RE#
622
64732
高6 LA
1760
65252
中3 M
659
64777
# 6
1865
65268
中4 FA
698
64820
高7 SI
1967
65283
下面我們要為這個音符建立一個表格,有助于單片機通過查表的方式來獲得相應的數據
低音0-19之間,中音在20-39之間,高音在40-59之間
TABLE:        DW 0,63628,63835,64021,64103,64260,64400,64524,0,0
                   DW 0,63731,63928,0,64185,64331,64463,0,0,0
                   DW 0,64580,64684,64777,64820,64898,64968,65030,0,0
                   DW 0,64633,64732,0,64860,64934,64994,0,0,0
                   DW 0,65058,65110,65157,65178,65217,65252,65283,0,0
                   DW 0,65085,65134,0,65198,65235,65268,0,0,0
                   DW 0
2、音樂的音拍,一個節拍為單位(C調)
曲調值
DELAY
 
曲調值
DELAY
調4/4
125ms
 
調4/4
62ms
調3/4
187ms
 
調3/4
94ms
調2/4
250ms
 
調2/4
125ms
對于不同的曲調我們也可以用單片機的另外一個定時/計數器來完成。
下面就用AT89S51單片機產生一首“生日快樂”歌曲來說明單片機如何產生的。
在這個程序中用到了兩個定時/計數器來完成的。其中T0用來產生音符頻率,T1用來產生音拍。
5.程序框圖
 
單片機電子琴Electronic organ
 
 
單片機電子琴Electronic organ
 
6.匯編源程序
KEYBUF      EQU 30H
STH0        EQU 31H
STL0        EQU 32H
TEMP        EQU 33H
            ORG 00H
            LJMP START
            ORG 0BH
            LJMP INT_T0
START:      MOV TMOD,#01H
            SETB ET0
            SETB EA
WAIT:  
            MOV P3,#0FFH
            CLR P3.4
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH 
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY1
            LCALL DELY10MS
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY1
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            CJNE A,#0EH,NK1
            MOV KEYBUF,#0
            LJMP DK1
NK1:        CJNE A,#0DH,NK2
            MOV KEYBUF,#1
            LJMP DK1
NK2:        CJNE A,#0BH,NK3
            MOV KEYBUF,#2
            LJMP DK1
NK3:        CJNE A,#07H,NK4
            MOV KEYBUF,#3
            LJMP DK1
NK4:        NOP
DK1:   
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV P0,A
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV B,#2
            MUL AB
            MOV TEMP,A
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE1
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STH0,A
            MOV TH0,A
            INC TEMP
            MOV A,TEMP
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STL0,A
            MOV TL0,A
            SETB TR0
 
DK1A:       MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JNZ DK1A
            CLR TR0
NOKEY1:
            MOV P3,#0FFH
            CLR P3.5
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY2
            LCALL DELY10MS
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY2
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            CJNE A,#0EH,NK5
            MOV KEYBUF,#4
            LJMP DK2
NK5:        CJNE A,#0DH,NK6
            MOV KEYBUF,#5
            LJMP DK2
NK6:        CJNE A,#0BH,NK7
            MOV KEYBUF,#6
            LJMP DK2
NK7:        CJNE A,#07H,NK8
            MOV KEYBUF,#7
            LJMP DK2
NK8:        NOP
DK2:   
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV P0,A
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV B,#2
            MUL AB
            MOV TEMP,A
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE1
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STH0,A
            MOV TH0,A
            INC TEMP
            MOV A,TEMP
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STL0,A
            MOV TL0,A
            SETB TR0
DK2A:       MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JNZ DK2A
            CLR TR0
NOKEY2:
            MOV P3,#0FFH
            CLR P3.6
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY3
            LCALL DELY10MS
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY3
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            CJNE A,#0EH,NK9
            MOV KEYBUF,#8
            LJMP DK3
NK9:        CJNE A,#0DH,NK10
            MOV KEYBUF,#9
            LJMP DK3
NK10:       CJNE A,#0BH,NK11
            MOV KEYBUF,#10
            LJMP DK3
NK11:       CJNE A,#07H,NK12
            MOV KEYBUF,#11
            LJMP DK3
NK12:       NOP
DK3:
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV P0,A
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV B,#2
            MUL AB
            MOV TEMP,A
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE1
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STH0,A
            MOV TH0,A
            INC TEMP
            MOV A,TEMP
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STL0,A
            MOV TL0,A
            SETB TR0
 
DK3A:       MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JNZ DK3A
            CLR TR0
NOKEY3:
            MOV P3,#0FFH
            CLR P3.7
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY4
            LCALL DELY10MS
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JZ NOKEY4
            MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            CJNE A,#0EH,NK13
            MOV KEYBUF,#12
            LJMP DK4
NK13:       CJNE A,#0DH,NK14
            MOV KEYBUF,#13
            LJMP DK4
NK14:       CJNE A,#0BH,NK15
            MOV KEYBUF,#14
            LJMP DK4
NK15:       CJNE A,#07H,NK16
            MOV KEYBUF,#15
            LJMP DK4
NK16:       NOP
DK4:   
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV P0,A
            MOV A,KEYBUF
            MOV B,#2
            MUL AB
            MOV TEMP,A
            MOV DPTR,#TABLE1
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STH0,A
            MOV TH0,A
            INC TEMP
            MOV A,TEMP
            MOVC A,@A+DPTR
            MOV STL0,A
            MOV TL0,A
            SETB TR0
DK4A:       MOV A,P3
            ANL A,#0FH
            XRL A,#0FH
            JNZ DK4A
            CLR TR0
NOKEY4:
            LJMP WAIT
DELY10MS:
            MOV R6,#10
D1:         MOV R7,#248
            DJNZ R7,$
            DJNZ R6,D1
            RET
INT_T0:
            MOV TH0,STH0
            MOV TL0,STL0
            CPL P1.0
            RETI
TABLE:      DB 3FH,06H,5BH,4FH,66H,6DH,7DH,07H
            DB 7FH,6FH,77H,7CH,39H,5EH,79H,71H
 
TABLE1:     DW 64021,64103,64260,64400
            DW 64524,64580,64684,64777
            DW 64820,64898,64968,65030
            DW 65058,65110,65157,65178
            END
7.  C語言源程序
#include
unsigned char code table[]={0x3f,0x06,0x5b,0x4f,
                            0x66,0x6d,0x7d,0x07,
                            0x7f,0x6f,0x77,0x7c,
                            0x39,0x5e,0x79,0x71};
unsigned char temp;
unsigned char key;
unsigned char i,j;
unsigned char STH0;
unsigned char STL0;
unsigned int code tab[]={64021,64103,64260,64400,
                          64524,64580,64684,64777,
                          64820,64898,64968,65030,
                          65058,65110,65157,65178};
void main(void)
{
  TMOD=0x01;
  ET0=1;
  EA=1;
  while(1)
    {
      P3=0xff;
      P3_4=0;
      temp=P3;
      temp=temp & 0x0f;
      if (temp!=0x0f)
        {
          for(i=50;i>0;i--)
          for(j=200;j>0;j--);
          temp=P3;
          temp=temp & 0x0f;
          if (temp!=0x0f)
            {
              temp=P3;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              switch(temp)
                {
                  case 0x0e:
                    key=0;
                    break;
                  case 0x0d:
                    key=1;
                    break;
                  case 0x0b:
                    key=2;
                    break;
                  case 0x07:
                    key=3;
                    break;
                }
              temp=P3;
              P1_0=~P1_0;
              P0=table[key];
              STH0=tab[key]/256;
              STL0=tab[key]%256;
              TR0=1;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              while(temp!=0x0f)
                {
                  temp=P3;
                  temp=temp & 0x0f;             
                }
              TR0=0;
            }
        }
 
      P3=0xff;
      P3_5=0;
      temp=P3;
      temp=temp & 0x0f;
      if (temp!=0x0f)
        {
          for(i=50;i>0;i--)
          for(j=200;j>0;j--);
          temp=P3;
          temp=temp & 0x0f;
          if (temp!=0x0f)
            {
              temp=P3;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              switch(temp)
                {
                  case 0x0e:
                    key=4;
                    break;
                  case 0x0d:
                    key=5;
                    break;
                  case 0x0b:
                    key=6;
                    break;
                  case 0x07:
                    key=7;
                    break;
                }
              temp=P3;
              P1_0=~P1_0;
              P0=table[key];
              STH0=tab[key]/256;
              STL0=tab[key]%256;
              TR0=1;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              while(temp!=0x0f)
                {
                  temp=P3;
                  temp=temp & 0x0f;             
                }
              TR0=0;
            }
        }
 
      P3=0xff;
      P3_6=0;
      temp=P3;
      temp=temp & 0x0f;
      if (temp!=0x0f)
        {
          for(i=50;i>0;i--)
          for(j=200;j>0;j--);
          temp=P3;
          temp=temp & 0x0f;
          if (temp!=0x0f)
            {
              temp=P3;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              switch(temp)
                {
                  case 0x0e:
                    key=8;
                    break;
                  case 0x0d:
                    key=9;
                    break;
                  case 0x0b:
                    key=10;
                    break;
                  case 0x07:
                    key=11;
                    break;
                }
              temp=P3;
              P1_0=~P1_0;
              P0=table[key];
              STH0=tab[key]/256;
              STL0=tab[key]%256;
              TR0=1;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              while(temp!=0x0f)
                {
                  temp=P3;
                  temp=temp & 0x0f;             
                }
              TR0=0;
            }
        }
      P3=0xff;
      P3_7=0;
      temp=P3;
      temp=temp & 0x0f;
      if (temp!=0x0f)
        {
          for(i=50;i>0;i--)
          for(j=200;j>0;j--);
          temp=P3;
          temp=temp & 0x0f;
          if (temp!=0x0f)
            {
              temp=P3;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              switch(temp)
                {
                  case 0x0e:
                    key=12;
                    break;
                  case 0x0d:
              &nbs, , , p;     key=13;
                    break;
                  case 0x0b:
                    key=14;
                    break;
                  case 0x07:
                    key=15;
                    break;
                }
              temp=P3;
              P1_0=~P1_0;
              P0=table[key];
              STH0=tab[key]/256;
              STL0=tab[key]%256;
              TR0=1;
              temp=temp & 0x0f;             
              while(temp!=0x0f)
                {
                  temp=P3;
                  temp=temp & 0x0f;             
                }
              TR0=0;
            }
        }     
    }
}
 
void t0(void) interrupt 1 using 0
{
  TH0=STH0;
  TL0=STL0;
  P1_0=~P1_0;
}
 
 

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